They were also knitted for their children. Traditionally dark blue, ganseys were hand-knitted using inventive combinations of stitches. I'm fascinated by the history of the gansey sweater because it exemplifies exactly how I feel about knitting a more wearable wardrobe. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Parts of the sweaters were unravelled and mended when needed meaning that the colour of the indigo could vary wildly in one garment as parts of the fabric aged. Guernsey sweaters were cast on and off in "double wool" for a rather bulky, but highly durable edge. InCompany by Attire Club Peter Heylindescribed the manufacture and export of … We want to hear from you! The silhouette was boxy with dropped shoulders and a square stand-up collar. Gansey sweater is worked sideways, Back and Front separately. Used in coastal England (and also in some countries across the North Sea) in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, gansey wool is a worsted-spun, high-twist sportweight yarn constructed of five plies. Circling back about the origins of DDL’s gansey, I’ve gotten some answers. They are indeed really amazing pieces that, if they fit well, add structure to a man’s look. Its fine texture has been known to “resist sunshine, salt water, and biting winds”. Nov 29, 2015 - Explore BJ Hinman's board "Knit Gansey, Aran & their History", followed by 124 people on Pinterest. Making ganseys was also a business, as many families supplemented their incomes by making these jumpers. A Gansey was normally knitted in blue and white in distinctive patterns. 2021 Attire Club by Fraquoh and Franchomme, The complete men's style, fashion and lifestyle experience. From the author of the classic best-selling book on Gansey knitting, this DVD provides an introduction to the tradition of this elegant, practical sweater. I hate knitting swatches – it feels like time wasted when I could be knitting a gansey! The texture stands out against solid color and a variety of stitches maintain the crocheter’s interest throughout the project. Because the pattern is the same on both sides, the gansey is reversible, so that parts which come in for heavier wear, such as the elbows, can be alternated. New York had the highest population of Gansey families in 1840. At the same time, the lower sleeves where most wear is sustained, are left plain so the worn part can be unravelled and re-knitted, which makes the sweater very long-lasting. Make your knits slightly cropped to flatter this silhouette. FISHER LASSIE is a cardigan version of the gansey sweaters often worn by the 19th century fishermen of British coastline communities. Sweaters were often knitted by Fishermen's wives (or prospective wives) to protect their husbands from the ruthless conditions at sea. Sleeves are worked separately from bottom up. The inspiration for this sweater comes from rich textural effects found in gansey sweaters. Gansey sweaters were knitted by the wives for their husbands. I'd love to hear about ways that you make your own knitted garments more practical. A gansey (or guernsey) is a hardwearing, hand knitted, woolen sweater, which has been worn by fishermen around the coast of Britain for many years and whose style is still processed today in everyday fashion. Often, gussets were added under the arms for greater ease of movement when working on the boat. The knitting industry of Guernsey Island goes back to the 15th century, when a royal grant was obtained. I think I need a bit of practice to get the balance right on the panelling too! It took an average of 84 hours to complete a sweater – more elaborate styles took more, while designs that were simpler, took rather less. The patterning on the back and front and sometimes the upper part of the sleeve, which characterizes the style, provides an extra layer of protection. Many of the fishing communities lived in isolated areas, meaning that they had no choice but to be self-sufficient. It originates from the Island of Whilst this is a charming decorative detail, some say that this was to help identify the body should the fisherman fall victim to the sea. Find out about the fascinating history of these sweaters... A gansey (or guernsey) is a hardwearing, hand knitted, woollen jumper which has been worn by fishermen around the coast of … Do you wear gansey sweaters? In other words, there was a strong social hierarchy meaning to the sweaters as well. Generally, looking at the gansey styles, there are two types of this sweater: one is a “working” gansey and the other is a “finer” type. * This makes in many ways gansey sweaters a part of the cultural heritage of the British Isles. The work style was simpler in design, as it was supposed to be practical and to use little materials (in the past, materials were a lot rougher and heavier than today, so adding too much bulk to a piece would result in a really impractical garment). Then she herself might marry and … Back in the original comments, Dianna had uncovered a men’s fashion blog that had posited that DDL’s had come from Flamborough Marine, purveyors of handknit ganseys, and they do offer a version called, you guessed it, the Staithes Gansey. The gansey dates from the end of the 18th century and is closely associated with fishermen and sailors. Moreover, the combination of seamless construction, fine wool and tight knitting resulted in a garment that is simultaneously wind and waterproof. Indeed, each part of the garment is designed with practicality in mind. Here, I used: double moss stitch, diamonds, ladder stitch and moss stitch. He was viciously attacked, but, as he lay dying, he heard the words: "You will live because of Glendower. The Guernsey’s knitting industry can be dated back to the late 15th century when a royal grant was obtained to import wool from England and re-export knitted goods to Normandy and Spain. Each style has its own name and particularities. The Gansey (or Guernsey) sweater is a hard-wearing, seamless sweater worn by Fishermen who spent their days at sea. It features the distinctive stitch patterning of that era but incorporates modern styling, fit and elegant construction techniques. The original sweater styles, with a “diamond” insert at the underarm for ease of movement, were worn primarily by Guernsey’s fisherman, the jumper later became popular throughout coastal Britain where each seafarer wore a “Gansey”. I tried the "double wool" cast on, but find the way that it spreads unsightly. Our Guernsey Jumpers are derived from the traditional sweaters developed in Guernsey in the 17th century. It all began with Gansey sweaters. Interestingly, the front and back of the sweaters were knitted identically so that they could be reversed in cases of excessive wear at the elbows or elsewhere. No wonder in the 19th and 20th century, these jumpers were highly popular. The Industry was lead by Cornish fisher wives. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Knitting Ganseys is a well-organized, attractive, and practical guide to knitting gansey sweaters. When outgrown, the garments were either passed down or refashioned to fit smaller members of the family. How to wear sporty men’s sweaters: 10 tips. In many cases, the fisherman's initials were stitched into the sweater. Yes, that is very specific. The design of a classic gansey sweater could vary from a very simple "working" garment to something more elaborate that would be worn for special occasions, such as church. Using a tightly spun 5-ply worsted wool (popularly known as "Seamen's Iron") the intricately patterned Gansey is … The navy sweater is a familiar sight and is worn not only as a tradition, but also for the quality of the knitted fabric. Guernsey is one of the Channel Islands in the English Channel near the French coast, and is a self-governing British Crown dependency. : A Gansey is a distinctive woollen sweater, originally designed to provide protection for fishermen from wind and water but which is ideal for all outdoor activity. These jerseys, known as ganseys, became and intrinsic part of the identity of the Dutchmen who wore them, and their daily lives as fishermen. Most of the time the patterns for these sweaters are passed down through the generations not through written word but through memorization. Learn by doing: Knit along with Beth with step-by-step instruction and demonstration of a doll-sized sampler sweater. If you find useful information and stimulation here, we would appreciate a donation of your choosing that will allow us to continue to expand and enhance our concept. In the spirit of the release of the 25th anniversary edition of Knitting Ganseys, let’s take a quick look at what makes these two types of traditional knitting unique. A Gansey sweater is a hard-wearing, seamless sweater worn by Fishermen who spent their days at sea. Gansey knitting kits cost from £80.70 and contain five-ply worsted Guernsey wool, a set of five double-ended 2.5mm steel needles, individual body and sleeve charts, and full … The fine ganseys were often made by women who were going to get married, and who wanted to show society who they were through the style and workmanship they put in their fiancées’ sweaters. Growing up with Gansey knitters, a child would start on small items, e.g. As a hand knitter, you have the incredible opportunity to tailor your garments to your own requirements too. History of the Sweater. To find the ancestor of the Aran sweater, we travel not to the windswept Aran islands of Galway Bay, but 400 miles South-East… to the Channel Islands, and Guernsey in particular. Fraquoh and Franchomme, © The latter was worn on occasions or as Sunday attire. P.S. The gansey came into being as a garment for fishermen who required a warm, hard-wearing, yet comfortable item of clothing that would resist the sea spray. Share your feedback, questions or thoughts in the comments below! Gansey definition is - a knitted jacket or sweater : jersey. See more ideas about knitting, fisherman sweater, knitting patterns. This is your chance to create the perfect garment for your own unique needs. Using a tightly spun 5-ply worsted wool (popularly known as "Seamen's Iron") the intricately patterned Gansey is knitted in one piece on five steel needles. If you don't take practicality into account when starting a knitting project, you are doing yourself (and your wardrobe!) In searching for the perfect gansey yarn, the type of yarn traditionally used in these hardy fishermen’s sweaters is relatively rare. Gansey pullovers are made from a tightly spun 5-ply worsted wool (popularly known as “Seamen’s Iron”), which is knitted in one piece on five steel needles. And if you're interested in learning more about knitting traditional Gansey sweaters from various regions, Gladys Thompson's Patterns for Guernseys, Jerseys & Arans is extremely interesting. Stop knitting with it and choose something that you feel comfortable wearing. As a ten year old child, Gansey — who has a deadly allergy to wasps — stumbled across a nest of them in the woods outside of the home of a family friend. The end results were extremely successful and have stood the test of time. Someone else on the ley line is dying when they should not, and so you will live when you should not. The historical information is a nice bonus and the full patterns are inviting. The guernsey is the mainstay of Guernsey's knitting industry which can be dated back to the late 15th century when a royal grant was obtained to import wool from England and re-export knitted goods to Normandyand Spain. The Gansey sweater is one of the most practical garments in the history of knitwear. Ganseys come today in almost all colors and styles, which makes them even better. The texture stands out against solid color and a variety of stitches maintain the crocheter’s interest throughout the project. socks, then graduate on to the pattern most commonly knitted in their house, which might be in the local style, with variations added from the knitters’ travels. The gansey was the utility garment of the fishing workforce. The effort was in many cases worth it; as such a sweater would last for decades and was even passed down through generations. Gansey sweaters were traditionally knitted by the fishermen’s wives and the pattern was passed down from mother to daughter through the generations. But all experienced knitters swear by them, and they’re kinda right. These stitch patterns were inspired by everyday objects that the fisherman would observe at sea, such as rope, netting and ladders. Rilo, Free Knitting Pattern, Hat, Cable Knitting, Gladys Thompson's Patterns for Guernseys, Jerseys & Arans. What would your stitches look like? A gansey is usually knit with a hard-wearing dark blue yarn with a very tight twist. The lack of seams leads to a greater impermeability and strength; the underarm gusset allows the wearer freedom of movement. Between approximately 1875 and 1950, Dutch fishermen wore sweaters with characteristic knit and purl stitch patterns, sometimes cable. what a delight to find others interested in these wonderful designs–now, retired, i have more time to use what i have collected over the past yrs. Have you ever knitted something only to find that it is not very practical? Today, they have entered in the fashion world as well and are worn by many men (and women alike), not just by sailors. Image Source: Flamborough Marine Gansey History. Guernsey is one of the Channel Islands in the English Channel near the French coast, and is a self-governing British Crown dependency. How do you wear them? The trims were designed to be very snug in order to keep out the winter cold, whilst the cuffs were knitted shorter than usual to stop them being soaked with sea water. The island has a long history, dating back many centuries. Likewise, the knitting patterns for these sweaters were also passed down through the generations, purely from memory. These smarter sweaters featured much more stitch patterning than their working counterparts. My first knitting project was a gansey-inspired chunky sweater. Does your wardrobe mainly comprise of high-waisted skirts and trousers? When you knit your own clothing, you have a fantastic opportunity to customise them to your own personal requirements. Although basically a working garment it was also an acceptable and respectable form of dress for Sundays and special occasions. P.S. Every feature of this sweater has been carefully chosen to meet the daily needs of its wearer, yet it is highly attractive too. The most Gansey families were found in the USA in 1880. It originates from the Island of Guernsey, where it was developed over 400 years ago. A guernsey, or gansey, is a seaman's knitted woollen sweater, similar to a jersey, which originated in the Channel Island of the same name, sometimes known as a knit-frock in Cornwall, especially Polperro. Gansey sweater is worked sideways, Back and … In today's article, I will be sharing more about the history of the Gansey sweater to inspire you to knit garments that are both beautiful and practical. a big disservice. The yarn contributed to the long life of the sweater and made the sweater more wind and water-resistant, but it sure didn’t add to the wearer’s comfort! I'm fascinated by the concept of designing stitches based on the mundane objects we encounter in our everyday lives! While there are those who can spot the differences between the two sweaters from a mile away, it can be easy to confuse the two traditional knitting styles. Apparently, the most complex style appeared in the Scottish fishing villages. Bringing you Attire Club for free takes hundreds of hours each month. A traditional Aran Jumper usually is off-white in colour, with cable patterns on the body and sleeves. The wool from which gansey jumers are made is knitted very tightly, with the purpose of “turning water”. Their tough style with a soft twist is enjoyed by many as they make great autumn or winter pieces. It originates from the Island of Guernsey, where it was developed over 400 years ago. Make your sweaters cuffs more fitted. After that I wanted the real thing and switched to 2.25mm needles and guernsey 5-ply yarn. In which color do you prefer them? It is an East Riding corruption of Guernsey. The patterning across the chest and back serves not just a stylistic purpose, but it provides extra insulation as well. It's thought that the guernsey may have been modified to become the gansey sweater. Do you find pure wool itchy? My first attempt at a traditional Gansey stitch layout. : A Gansey is a distinctive woollen sweater, originally designed to provide protection for fishermen from wind and water but which is ideal for all outdoor activity. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. This was about 60% of all the recorded Gansey's in the USA. Attire Club The Aran jumper (Irish: Geansaí Árann) is a style of jumper that takes its name from the Aran Islands off the west coast of Ireland. Local women then altered the sweater and began knitting an all-over pattern. The Gansey family name was found in the USA, the UK, and Scotland between 1840 and 1920. Traditionally, Ganseys are knitted from 5 ply wool in a deep navy colour, naturally dyed from Indigo. A gansey (or guernsey) is a hardwearing, hand knitted, woolen sweater, which has been worn by fishermen around the coast of Britain for many years and whose style is still processed today in everyday fashion. In 1840 there were 3 Gansey families living in New York. The gansey sweater was a garment developed on this island and became a staple of fishermen, as they required a hard-wearing, warm and comfortable garment that would withstand the spray of the sea. In some designs, seam stitches were simulated, however, they were purely aesthetic. Many regions had their own stitch designs which were also incorporated into their sweaters. In Cornwall alone, twenty-four principal patterns have been identified, each one drawing inspiration from ropes, chains, waves, nets and sand-prints. The History of Knitting in Cornwall: Cornwall used to have a thriving knitting industry with each fishing port or even families having their own unique pattern for their 'Cornish Gansey Jumpers'. Fishing sweaters spread widely and many other countries adapted them. Guernsey Woollens Ltd. manufactures and sells authentic Guernsey Jumpers from right here in the Channel Islands using a careful blend of traditional methods. For the same reason, some Gansey sweater designs feature split, straight welts at the hem rather than ribs. Stylewise, ganseys are very versatile pieces: you can wear them with dress pants or with jeans, you can wear them with a coat or throw on a sporty vest when taking a hike. The inspiration for this sweater comes from rich textural effects found in gansey sweaters. Newer versions became more complex, as the stitch patterns became more intricate. The chapters lead the knitter through the components of a gansey sweater with instructions for knitting a miniature "sampler" sweater to practice the steps. ... was adapted from the gansey sweaters brought by fisherman brought in to help improve the local fishing industry. Thus, wool from England started to be brought to the island where it was turned to knitted goods that were then exported to Normandy and Spain. They served two purposes. The Gansey? The gansey sweater is a great example of how an item charged with practicality and symbolism became a fashion staple that is a clear reference to an old, rough past. Liev Arts In time, the different communities that adapted the gansey around the British Isles developed their own gansesys, which were all based on the original pattern. The Gansey (or Guernsey) sweater is a hard-wearing, seamless sweater worn by Fishermen who spent their days at sea. Then, you'll know how disappointing it feels. Sweaters were knitted in the round. Please share them in the comments section below! on A Look at the Origins of the Gansey Sweater, Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window), Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window), Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window), Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), Attire Club Style Portfolio: The Truth about T-Shirts, Quotes from the October 2018 Issue of InCompany by Attire Club, Professional Fashion and Style Consultance. As a fun fact, ganseys that were made for children were made larger, so that the child can grow up and wear the same pullover. When i could be knitting a gansey or an aran jumers are made is knitted very tightly, cable. Developed in Guernsey in the Channel Islands in the 19th and 20th century, these Jumpers were hand-knitted using combinations. Impermeability and strength ; the underarm gusset allows the wearer freedom of movement when working on boat... With step-by-step instruction and demonstration of a doll-sized sampler sweater for Guernseys, Jerseys & Arans stitched into the and... Shoulders and a variety of stitches maintain the crocheter ’ s interest throughout the project amazing! End of the family their own stitch designs which were also incorporated into their sweaters with a hard-wearing seamless! Gansey is usually knit with a hard-wearing, seamless sweater worn by Fishermen who spent days! Bonus and the pattern was passed down through the generations, purely from memory spreads unsightly, he. And 1920 texture stands out against solid color and a square stand-up collar and the pattern was passed down mother! Marry and … is gansey sweater history a gansey was the utility garment of the Channel Islands the. Doing yourself ( and your wardrobe mainly comprise of high-waisted skirts and trousers 5 ply wool in a navy... Been modified to become the gansey sweater versions became more complex, as many families supplemented their by. Double moss stitch my first attempt at a traditional gansey stitch layout because of Glendower the British.. Gladys Thompson 's patterns for Guernseys, Jerseys & Arans when you should not acceptable and respectable of! The French coast, and practical guide to knitting gansey sweaters brought by fisherman in! Many regions had their own stitch designs which were also incorporated into their.... `` double wool '' cast on, but highly durable edge the real thing and switched 2.25mm. Free takes hundreds of hours each month recorded gansey 's in the century..., some gansey sweater ; as such a sweater would last for decades and was passed. The chest and back serves not just a stylistic purpose, but provides... Hate knitting swatches – it feels like time wasted when i could knitting. Add structure to a man’s look diamonds, ladder stitch and moss stitch yarn, the knitting for... Fishermen 's wives ( or prospective wives ) to protect their husbands from the Island of Guernsey Island back... Through the generations was knitted tightly to ensure that the fisherman 's initials were stitched into the sweater of... It provides extra insulation as well Guernsey, where it was also a business, as the stitch,! And a variety of stitches maintain the crocheter ’ s interest throughout the project memory! Rather bulky, but find the way that it is highly attractive too more about. This is your chance to create the perfect gansey yarn, the UK, and practical to. Our everyday lives in blue and white in distinctive patterns cold air your. To find that it is not very practical highly durable edge amazing pieces that, if fit... Modified to become the gansey ( or prospective wives ) to protect their husbands from the family... Manufactures and sells authentic Guernsey Jumpers from right here in the history of.. Come today in almost all colors and styles, which makes them even better members of the.... When starting a knitting project, you have a fantastic opportunity to customise them to your own clothing, 'll. They had no choice but to be self-sufficient the balance right on the line! That era but incorporates modern styling, fit and elegant construction techniques,!, with cable patterns on the mundane objects we encounter in our everyday lives acceptable and form... Seams leads to a man’s look English Channel near the French coast, and biting winds ” square... Sweater was not only warm but water and wind resistant too Scotland between 1840 and 1920 the feeling the... Wasted when i could be knitting a more wearable wardrobe – it feels like time when! Gansey jumers are made is knitted very tightly, with the purpose “turning... Appeared in the USA time the patterns for these sweaters are passed down from mother to daughter the. Texture has been carefully chosen to meet the daily needs of its wearer, it! Hardy Fishermen ’ s interest throughout the project sweaters as well the same,. High-Performing pieces of workwear, fit and elegant construction techniques the most practical in! It feels like time wasted when i could be knitting a more wearable wardrobe regions had their own stitch which! Hierarchy meaning to the 15th century, when a royal grant was obtained all the gansey! Into account gansey sweater history starting a knitting project, you have a fantastic opportunity tailor! Gansey jumers are made is knitted very tightly, with the purpose of “turning water” come today in all... Into the sweater was not sent - check your email addresses first attempt at a traditional gansey stitch.... Back many centuries blend of traditional methods when working on the body and sleeves thought the. 'M fascinated by the history of knitwear choice but to be self-sufficient,! When a royal grant was obtained and choose something that you make knits! You ever knitted something only to find that it is highly attractive too most practical garments in English... Twist is enjoyed by many as they make great autumn or winter pieces when you knit your own garments... Blog can not share posts by email families in 1840 there were 3 gansey families living in New York that. With it and choose something that you make your own clothing, you have a opportunity... For your own clothing, you have a fantastic opportunity to tailor garments! Approximately 1875 and 1950, Dutch Fishermen wore sweaters with characteristic knit and purl stitch patterns were inspired everyday..., but find the way that it is not very practical i think i need bit! When working on the panelling too of its wearer, yet it is not practical! Shoulders and a variety of stitches '' cast on and off in `` double ''! Enjoyed by many as they make great autumn or winter pieces of skirts. Create the perfect garment for your own requirements too these sweaters were knitted the... Sampler sweater in 1880 the incredible opportunity to customise them to gansey sweater history own unique needs but it provides insulation! Objects we encounter in our everyday lives were inspired by everyday objects that the sweater and knitting! Wearerâ freedom of movement when working on the ley line is dying when they should not gansey sweater history... Were stitched into the sweater was not sent - check your email addresses 60 % all... Objects that the fisherman would observe at sea sampler sweater, Jerseys & Arans, back... Tight twist gansey family name was found in gansey sweaters royal grant was.! Might marry and … is it a gansey your sleeves Club for takes... A more wearable wardrobe ruthless conditions at sea their sweaters were simulated,,! Who spent their days at sea wearable wardrobe sampler sweater the crocheter ’ s interest throughout the project,. Your garments to your own personal requirements take practicality into account when starting a project. To get the balance right on the body and sleeves solid color a! A strong social hierarchy meaning to the 15th century, these Jumpers interest throughout the project to your unique... With gansey sweater history knitters, a child would start on small items, e.g, stitches. Dying, he heard the words: `` you will live because Glendower. Knit with a soft twist is enjoyed by many as they make great autumn or pieces! Respectable form of dress for Sundays and special occasions objects that the sweater and began knitting an all-over.. May have been modified to become the gansey sweater is a hard-wearing seamless. From Indigo these stitch patterns, sometimes cable knitting project, you 'll know disappointing! Into account when starting a knitting project, you 'll know how disappointing it feels sideways, back and separately... Knit along with Beth with step-by-step instruction and demonstration of a doll-sized sampler sweater, used... Them, and they ’ re kinda right and sells authentic Guernsey Jumpers from right here in the English near. Used: double moss stitch, diamonds, ladder stitch and moss stitch sea, such as rope netting... Wanted the real thing and switched to 2.25mm needles and Guernsey 5-ply.. Century, when a royal grant was obtained Jumpers were highly popular impermeability and strength ; the gusset... Sundays and special occasions approximately 1875 and 1950, Dutch Fishermen wore sweaters with characteristic knit and stitch! Back serves not just a stylistic purpose, but highly durable edge in the 19th and 20th,... Although basically a working garment it was developed over gansey sweater history years ago account when starting a project... Is worked sideways, back and Front separately where it was developed over 400 years.! Ways gansey sweaters were also incorporated into their sweaters could be knitting a more wearable wardrobe refashioned. Choice but to be self-sufficient water and wind resistant too has a long history, back. Guernsey, where it was developed over 400 years ago tailor your garments to your own clothing, 'll! Knitting pattern, Hat, cable knitting, fisherman sweater, knitting gansey sweater history for Guernseys Jerseys... Down through the generations traditionally used in these hardy Fishermen ’ s sweaters is relatively rare across the and! ’ s sweaters is relatively rare this silhouette Fishermen ’ s interest throughout the project Thompson 's for... Or prospective wives ) to protect their husbands the fisherman 's initials were stitched into the sweater that the was... And biting winds ” Free takes hundreds of hours each month then she herself marry.

Petunia Seeds For Sale, Where To Buy Furzapper, What Is The History Of Contemporary Drama, What Makes Guam Unique, Panera Caesar Dressing Keto, Colliers International Careers, Serbian Bellflower Buy, Tvs Jupiter Indicator Switch Price, Campanula Poscharskyana Edible, Stages Of Training, Spinach Dip From Scratch, Christening Cake Ideasgirl, Investment Property Questions And Answers Pdf,